Scientists indicate that the replicas depends on the vibration and not of the magnitude of the earthquake

On 16 September , the United States Geological Survey (USGS) recorded the largest earthquake in the area in Illapel, Coquimbo region (Chile). The earthquake of 8.4 degrees has caused more than 500 aftershocks in less than a week, 15 of them exceeding Richter magnitude 6.

Click here: earthquake disaster kit

Sergio Barrientos, director of the National Seismological Center of the University of Chile, said in an interview with the newspaper La Tercera that “after a big earthquake like this happen, is an expected number of replicas” . Just do not should be given to misunderstandings.

A report by a team of researchers at the Second University of Naples (Italy), published in the journal Physical Review Letters , indicates that the magnitude of seismic waves caused by an earthquake do not have much effect on the probability of inducing another earthquake, it is only the frequency of vibration, slogan Gizmodo.

For the research, scientists used a computer model that analyzes how the land between tectonic plates are friccionadas, creating new earthquakes after a major earthquake.

“Each fault has its own acoustic resonance,” said Lucilla Arcangelis, one of the researchers, explaining that “if a signal reaches this frequency will cause an earthquake without any disturbance of failure”.
This would apply to the aftershocks caused by the earthquake during the last week in north central Chile, the researchers say.


Earthquake survival kit – In the tsunami caused by the earthquake measuring 8.5 magnitude December 26, 2004 in Aceh, noted the death toll reached 200,000 people are mostly in Aceh. Compare that with the tsunami caused by the earthquake measuring 8.9 magnitude on March 11, 2011 in Japan, there were only about 7,000 people who died.

As a comparative note, Japan had experienced the earthquake and tsunami more devastating in terms of the number of victims, the earthquake of 7.9 magnitude that is better known as “The Great Kanto Earthquake” in 1923 that killed more than 142,000 people. The number of victims vary much between the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh in 2004 and in Japan in 2011 showed that Japan prepared for disasters than those in Aceh at the time.

Japan, arguably the country’s most frequent earthquakes. That makes Japan a country that is most ready to face the earthquake and tsunami. Japan Various ways done to reduce the impact of disasters. Start of raising public awareness about disaster early on, build earthquake-resistant building infrastructure, building evacuation that qualified for the safety of citizens, there is even a company in Japan that creates a self rescue capsule when the tsunami struck.

So, no exaggeration if Indonesia and in Aceh in particular learn to terms with the disaster of Japan as a country that has been shown to minimize the number of casualties in each of the earthquake and tsunami that swept over her. How? Observe, imitate, and modification of the ways Japan in the face of disaster. Some of them are the following:


Disaster Early Education

I once saw a documentary entitled Children of the Tsunami . This film tells the story of the tsunami in 2011 from the eyes of Japanese children. They talked like not traumatized victims should a major disaster. Their innocent face looks tough to recount their experiences during the tsunami. In fact there is a girl who said quietly, “I did not Realize I never see her again. So I did not say goodbye to her ” , when told about his friend who died in the tsunami. Orderly, they also were able to evacuate to the hills.

Of course not easy to bounce back after a major disaster. But, after seeing the film I felt that these children are taught well in the face of disaster. Not only physically trained in self evacuation during a disaster, but also mentally educated marvelously. Japanese education system and the community to prepare their children to be like this that should be emulated by Indonesia. As a country that is quite frequent natural disasters, Indonesia should incorporate education about disasters in the education curriculum to make it more effective.

Tsunami Evacuation Training

Tsunami Evacuation Training or better known as the Tsunami drill carried out routinely by Japan since 1995 to coincide with the anniversary of the disaster management every 1st of September. Since 1960, the Disaster Management is celebrated to commemorate the earthquake and tsunami disaster ” The Great Kanto Earthquake” . On the anniversary, school children in Japan simultaneously hold simulated evacuation in case of earthquake and tsunami. Location of schools in Japan has been in the safest location and prepared into an evacuation center for the surrounding community.

Unlike in Aceh, during my stay in Banda Aceh for almost 6 years, I have witnessed directly tsunami evacuation intensive training as practiced by the Japanese, even when a tsunami warning every 26th of December. Aceh tsunami warnings have focused on the joint prayer.

It would be nice if evacuation simulations also be carried out regularly, simultaneously, and serious in all societies that present and future generations are better prepared to cope with disasters. If anything, the evacuation training in Aceh has not been implemented to the fullest. Even in my office which is located approximately 3 km from the beach has never even practiced evacuation during my work there.

I saw firsthand experience of evacuation that occurred during the earthquake in 2012 and showed that the people of Aceh are still very ill-equipped for the evacuation. Instead of evacuating in an orderly and coordinated, visible panic and chaos everywhere.

Disaster-Friendly Infrastructure Development

After the earthquake and tsunami in 2004, disaster-friendly infrastructure development in Aceh looks to have increased significantly. Disaster-friendly infrastructure has the purpose of reducing the impact of disasters. Development in order to mitigate the tsunami in Aceh, some of which are the detectors and sirens of the tsunami on the coast; the construction of a breakwater stone wall on the shoreline as in Ulee Lheue and around the tomb of Syiah Kuala; planting mangroves around the coast as seen in Ulee

Lheue and Syiah Kuala tomb area; manufacture and installation of these directions in the evacuation path  gampong;  the construction of the monument and the monument as a reminder of the tsunami for future generations; as well as the construction of high-rise buildings as shelter in case of a tsunami. The high-rise buildings in the form of  escape buildings  scattered around the beach Ulee Lheue, building Tsunami Research Center and Disaster Mitigation, also located in Ulee Lheue, as well as building the Tsunami Museum.

In addition to the tall buildings, the natural landscape of hills also have to function as a place of refuge. But unfortunately, the hills in some areas in Aceh Besar has begun to erode mineral mining C so that the hills had high ramps and turn into a steep and difficult climb. Even in some parts already looks flat to the ground. And should these hills but can function as a refuge from the tsunami could also be used as the city’s lungs neutralizing air pollution.

Although not as powerful as the Japanese who built  sea wall  height of 10 meters on the coast in anticipation of a tsunami, the development of infrastructure in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami has been seen imitating Japan. Japan also participated in the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Aceh. In fact, some  escape building  is derived from the Japanese relief fund. But unfortunately, mirror on the April 2012 earthquake, residents are still not maximal utilization of this facility.

An example occurred in  the village  of Gastric contained  escape building  there, only about 100 residents that led to the building of this savior. Thousands of residents fled using a motor vehicle to the area of Mata Ie are considered safe. Perhaps because of panic or do not believe in the robustness of the building caused many residents chose to flee to the relative far away.

One more thing that should be emulated by Aceh after the tsunami, Japan has always revise their spatial. As seen after the earthquake and tsunami in 2011, 12 local governments affected by the tsunami lifted up the land in their territory. On average elevated one to six meters. Some areas even elevated to 17 to 18 meters. Residential area was built back away from the tsunami zone.

See Aceh after the 2004 tsunami, spatial not much different before the tsunami. Settlements are not relocated, remains in the safe zone is not a tsunami. Although already built infrastructure such as evacuation of several buildings escape building, but it’s still lacking in order to minimize the number of victims during the disaster.

On the beach near the settlement, planted mengrove

That’s some Japanese form of disaster mitigation that can be adopted by Indonesia to reduce the impact and tsunami victims. In addition to the above matters, as individuals, we also have to equip themselves to face the disaster. Some of them are preparing for a disaster, be alert for signs of disaster, and disaster evacuation. A preparatory step for example by seeking out evacuation and planning  meeting point of  the family and prepare  safety pack  in the form of a duffel bag containing groceries, clothing, and medicine.

Be alert for signs of disaster can be done by looking at the behavior of animals that proved to be more sensitive than humans, looking for reliable information, and see the sea conditions. When the evacuation, should immediately flee to the safe path -could form of hills, climb trees, or building high-, bringing  safety pack,  and leave the property. And most important of course is always pray and draw closer to God in order to be safety.

Disasters may come unexpectedly and without warning. But of course we all have welcomed with full preparedness to face disaster if at any time come say hello. Study materials can come from anywhere, from anyone, anytime. However, learning from a country that has often struggled with a disaster such as Japan, must be done by us, the people of Indonesia to come to terms with the disaster. And, if all the efforts and prayers have been implemented, as a religious man, it’s time we surrender to the Almighty.

Understanding seismometer – History – Types and How It Works

The origin of the term seismometer is seismos and metero. Both are Greek. Seismos means earthquake , while metero mean measure. From these two words can be concluded that the definition of seismometers is an earthquake gauges. Another term to describe earthquake detection sensor is a seismograph .

Seismometer measures earthquakes with 2 types of measurements that earthquake magnitude measurement and the measurement of the intensity of the earthquake. the scale of measurement used in magnitude quake was magnitude, while the scale of measurement used in the seismic intensity scale called mercali.

There is another measurement scale used by the Japanese country with frequent earthquakes and tsunamis . The scale is a scale Omori. Third of the scale, the most commonly used is the Richter scale. This scale is obtained dar observations seismograms generated by seismometers.

Gambar terkait

History of seismometer

There are several stages of development ranging from seismometers that were first discovered until the seismometer used today.

  1. Inventors seismometers

A scientist who first discovered the seismometer is Zhang Heng. He lived in the eastern part of the Han Dynasty of China. A mathematician and astronomer who first discovered the seismometer claimed it terfikir to create an earthquake detection device for Luoyang area of ​​frequent earthquakes. At least once an earthquake occurs 30 times in 50 years.

In ancient times, the phenomenon of earthquakes must be very makes people scared (read: Due to Earthquake ). Zhang Heng then investigate the incident and make a tool that can think- wondered when an earthquake will occur. Seismometer shape that moment like an urn with a dragon ornament that is connected to the copper rod facing the eight cardinal directions. Here’s how it works:

  • When there is a tremor, copper rod will move the dragon ornament.
  • After that, granulated copper which is at the mouth of the dragon will be issued.
  • The copper granules will be heading to the frog ornament under the dragon ornament.
  • Copper granules captured by the ornaments frog that became a marker of where the location of the earthquake. For example, copper granules toward the frog ornaments are inclined towards the west, the epicentres located in the western part of the seismometer.
  1. Seismometer developments in Europe and America

Centuries after the discovery of the first seismometer, an Italian scientist named Luigi Palmieri made a seismometer uses mercury. He made a U-shaped tube and then pour mercury into it. Tubes were then collated in the eight cardinal directions.

Some twenty years later, a geologist from England named John Milne find modern seismometers. These seismometers can record horizontal earthquake occurring along the tectonic plate . John also initiated the construction of the seismological station .

In the mid-19th century, modern seismometers were developed further in the United sehungga be seismometer Press Ewing. Seismometer is then used in various parts of the continent in the world .

Macam Macam seismometer

There are various kinds of seismometers, by function seismometers seismometers are grouped into two namely horizontal and vertical. Each seismometers recorded earthquake with a horizontal and vertical direction. In Indonesia, the Meteorology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) usually install both types of seismometers seismometers this with a horizontal arrangement and two pairs of vertical seismometers.

The installation aims to predict the direction where earthquakes occur next earthquake . Seismometer can also find out the location of hiposentrum . Epicenter location can also be found using the seismometer . Apart from the two types of seismometers, there is another type of seismometer others, namely:

  • mechanical seismometers

To mechanical seismometers can already be recorded earthquake quake horizontally and vertically. Horizontal earthquake recorded in the south or the north, while the vertical earthquake recorded at a position west or east.


  • digital seismometers

Digital seismometers easier for bystanders earthquake. This tool is equipped with the latest technology such as electromagnetic technology and spelgavanomeer. The data recorded by digital seismometers can be directly transferred quickly and easily. In addition, the tool is also equipped with a screen or display panel.

  • Teleseismometer

Seismometer is made with a wide frequency range. The manufacturer is Guralp Systems Ltd which is part of the Monterey Accelerated Research System. This tool can measure the speed of movement of the ground very well.

  • Seismometer strong motion

This type is known as accel-. This seismometer can provide a position where the earthquake quickly. Strong motion seismometer is not too sensitive. As the name implies, this seismometer detects movement or vibration is very strong. Data obtained from accel- useful to determine the impact of earthquakes on structures around the earthquake zone

How it Works seismometer

To illustrate how the seismometer we can imagine a weight hanging on a spring wire. The burden placed on the pencil attached to a roll of paper that can be spun. The movement of the load and spring wire depending on the movement that occurs in the earth’s surface. If there is no vibration, the spring also will not move. The spring is very sensitive to any vibration.

When there is an earthquake, the vibration that occurs is vertical vibrations. The spring will move up and down so that the pencil on the load lines scrawled on paper reels spinning. That is what is called the record tremor, or so-called seismogram. A simple seismometer is very sensitive to vibrations that occur in the soil layer . Even the vibration or movement as small as 1 / 10,000,000 cm can be detected by seismometers.

Seismometers used are now very sophisticated. Digital seismometers are no longer using the vibration pen but recording has been done with a computer. Modern seismometers are able to record vibrations from all directions. The vibration source recorded well as various kinds, such as man-made vibrations such as dynamite, the ocean waves hit the coast , and even the movement of trees blowing in the sea breeze can also be recorded.

Before the disaster, in Nepal Sembahkan 6000 Buffalo to Goddess Gadhimai

Earthquake kit list – Post-quake measuring 7.9 on the Richter in Nepal on Saturday (04/25/2015) social networks flooded with a variety of news and matters related to the disaster which today claimed to have reached 17,000 people were killed and 14 021 injured.

Not long ago, in a variety of discussion groups WhatsApps (WA) many outstanding videos and photos associated with the earthquake in Nepal were ‘beheading’ massive persembangan animals to the gods.

“Mashallah, thousands of buffalo were slaughtered in Nepal to honor the gods in the Hindu religion,” according to one member of the sound message in the discussion group WhatsAppsobtained editorial  ,  with a ceremonial send video form ‘beheading ‘thousands of buffalo.

In the very near future, some of the same photograph has been circulated in groups of WA. Some people, had sent a statement to the editor to confirm the truth of photos and videos.

Festival Worship of Goddess Gadhimai

According to the source the Western media, about six months ago before the earthquake Nepal, exactly 28 November 2014, in Nepal there gadhimai festival, a festival celebration of the Hindu religion which is held once every five years at Temple Gadhimai Bariyapur, Distik Bara, about 100 miles (160 KM) south of the capital Kathmandu in southern Nepal bordering India.

This celebration involves animal sacrifice (in the form; buffaloes, pigs, goats, chickens and pigeons) in the world that aims to please the Goddess Gadhimai, the Goddess of Power.


In this celebration, estimated at more than 250,000 animals were sacrificed to please the Hindu goddesses.

Note Reuters quoted the animal rights organization, PETA, asking to stop the ritual, festival previously cut more than 250,000 birds.

The festival ends with a ritual beheading of 6,000 buffalo in a field near the temple. The ritual was done for two days.

Activists from PETA constantly campaigning to stop what he described as heinous ceremonies, ‘massacre’ is. Even so, the committee called the festival ritual actually be the biggest this year.

A total of 2.5 million visitors view the festival, according to local officials, Yogendra Prasad Dulal. He also said that it is impossible to calculate the full animals slaughtered during this time.

“It was a great day,” said Mangal Chaudary, head priest of the Temple of Gadhimai. “Sacrifices of buffaloes has been completed, but we will continue to slaughter goats and other animals for one day to the next,” he continued.

During the two-day festival, the Hindu devotee has cut more than 6,000 buffaloes and 100,000 goats and other animals. These animals are dedicated to the goddess Gadhimai.

As is known, more than 80 percent (27 million inhabitants of Nepal) are Hindu.

Worshipers believe that animal sacrifices will bring good luck and prosperity after the Goddess Gadhimai satisfied.

Although the cow is considered sacred, thousands of animals slaughtered, in the picture, is the buffalo. Do not imagine the ‘sacrifice’ of these animals as a way of Islam slaughtered jugular vein (exactly three channels in the neck) by way of put to sleep first. A total of 6,000 buffalo are herded in an open field, then decapitated, from the top, using a typical sword.

As for the head of a sacrificed animal will be buried in a large pit, while the skin will be sold to traders.


Activists from PETA repeatedly protested this festival. “It’s not worth killing animals in the name of religion,” Kaat Uttam Kafle, members of animal rights protection to Reuters.

“We tried to convince the people that they may worship in a peaceful manner, without the need to conduct animal cruelty,” said Uttam.

High Court of India recently has asked the government to stop shipping to Nepal animal used for the ceremony.

Mexico, Vietnam, and Japan Ready to Face Typhoon

At least five people were killed and hundreds of thousands of people evacuated due to typhoon Nari in Vietnam . InMexico , a missing passenger plane Octave affected by the tropical storm. While Japan braced for the biggest cyclone in the last 10 years.

Typhoon Nari hit Vietnam the middle, morning, best earthquake kit after a tantrum in the Philippines over the weekend. At least five citizens of Vietnam were reported killed by the typhoon hit.

The typhoon hit the central part of Vietnam , from the historic city of Hue to Da Nang city. Trees were uprooted and thousands of homes damaged roofs and flying, while many roads impassable due to heavy rain.

Schools in Da Nang was closed when the city was ravaged beaten typhoon Nari brought winds of up to 133 kilometers per hour. Earlier, the Government of Vietnam has evacuated more than 120,000 people to temporary shelters in public buildings are far from the coast.

Weather Forecast Agency Vietnam said the typhoon Nari have crossed the border into Laos by mid-Tuesday. Before you hit Vietnam , Typhoon Nari killed 13 people in the Philippines .

The typhoon is a tropical cyclone which hit the 11th Vietnam so far this year. Last month Wutip cyclone left a trail of destruction in the communist state, damaged nearly 200,000 houses and killed several people. Forty people have been killed in floods in Vietnam since the beginning of September.

missing plane
In Mexico , the US National Hurricane Center (NHC) has revoked all the dangers of a tropical storm warning on Tuesday after a tropical storm strength Octave weakened after landing on Monday (10/14/2013) night.

Octave brought wind speed 55 kilometers per hour stay when the core of the storm moving in Baja California peninsula of Mexico . Despite the strength of the storm had weakened, the NHC still warning of the danger of flooding and landslides. Heavy rains have spread in the southern part of the Baja California Peninsula.

Bad weather that caused the storm was also allegedly associated with the loss of a light passenger aircraft that carry 14 people. Single-engine plane Cessna 208-B was missing after taking off from Loreto, popular tourist destinations in the State of Baja California Sur, Mexico . Until Tuesday, the plane has not been found.

Octave storm comes just three weeks after Mexico was hit by a double storm, Manuel and Ingrid. As a result of the double storm, about 157 people were killed, including 101 people in the southern state of Guerrero.

typhoon Wipha
Japan braced for the arrival of Typhoon Wipha, known as the strongest typhoon in 10 years. Wipha winds of nearly 200 kilometers km per hour near its center and triggering heavy rain. Meteorological Agency of Japan said the typhoon was in the Pacific Ocean in southern Japan on Tuesday night, and moving north at 35 kilometers per hour.

Typhoon Wipha is expected to reach the Tokyo metropolitan area on Wednesday morning. After that, the storm is expected to continue moving to the north, leading to the coast of Fukushima, where the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant is located. The nuclear power plant damaged by the March 11 tsunami of 2011, and is still facing the problem of radioactive leaks.


Lately, disaster after disaster like hitting streak this country. Start the tsunami disaster in Aceh, flash-floods and landslides in Psychology, Mount Merapi and yesterday’s earthquake in Yogyakarta and in Papua. Every case of natural disasters inevitably lead to a lot of losses, either casualties or damages infrastructure and various other forms of damages. California earthquake insurance due to the fact that so bitter that, we try to assess how to anticipate that there will be a natural disaster.So that when disaster strikes we can try to suppress or minimize the risk of loss, especially the risk of loss of lives. Because God does not change the fate of a nation if it did not try to change them yourself.

Hasil gambar untuk Dapatkah gempa bumi di hindari

Hopefully, our study results could be useful for this nation. Amien.


There is a question that makes us think seriously, whether in ancient times our nation is never affected by natural disasters such as the devastating tsunami, earthquake or volcanic eruption ….? If it ever happens, how they anticipate. Because the wise man is able to learn and take lessons from the experiences (history) past for the benefit and advancement of the future.

In the tsunami in Aceh and the earthquake in Yogyakarta yesterday there was a fact that makes us concerned, namely Officers and BMG equipment we have not been able to predict that there will be natural disasters. This happened during the merely give a report of how the strength of the earthquake, after the earthquake occurred. So the question arises, what are the benefits actually report it …… ?.

Because no previous prediction that, ultimately when we experiencing pain disaster occurs terrifying because a lot of casualties and other losses.Although on the other hand there is a silver lining, which creates a feeling of unity and integrity of the Indonesian nation in post-disaster management. Such as Aceh affected by the tsunami, of the various elements of the nation helped, so when the earthquake hit Yogyakarta yesterday.

It would be better if we were able to predict, so that when the accident occurred not too many casualties as in Aceh and Yogyakarta.


Wise words to say, if the experience is a good teacher. Now let us examine the various calamities which have befallen this nation:

  1. At the time of the tsunami in Aceh, there are interesting events on the island Simeleu.Although the island close to the epicenter, but residents actually survived there were no casualties. Because before they were just carrying out traditional rituals, it seems at the time of the event to get an inkling of Indigenous Elders, so that all residents were told to evacuate to higher ground.
  2. At some time ago, when Mount Semeru would erupt. All citizens of the region is expected to hit the hot lava were told to evacuate. Due to the officer-Volcano’s (BPPTK) states that Mount Semeru would erupt. But there is no one named Mbah Dipo Elders who do not want to evacuate and surrounding residents also do not want to evacuate. Although the time it Subdistrict Lumajang Regents Pronojiwo and persuade. And it turns out not so erupting Mount Semeru, meaningful statement to the officer-Volcano’s (BPPTK) countered by a Mbah Dipo, the villagers are innocent and are not formally educated.
  3. When Mount Merapi expressed in the situation “Awas Merapi”, there is no Mbah Marijan who would not evacuate even if time were some national leaders try to persuade him. It is also an evidence of that statement to the officer-Volcano’s still less appropriate when compared with the statements and attitudes of Mbah Marijan. Because of this writing is Mount Merapi is not erupting. (This study began were made of date, May 29 – June 20, 2006). In fact, as if like a BPPTK officer played by Mount Merapi, because after Mount Merapi situation of “Awas Merapi” downgraded to “Alert Merapi”, disasters hot ash slide (Wedhus Gembel) destroy Kali Adhem region. (15 June 2006). On June 13, 2006 we went to the foot of Mount Merapi.

Of the three facts above, namely: Indigenous Elders Simeleu island, Mbah Dipo and Mbah Marijan, actually what advantages he-he, why the attitude and remarks quite surprising but can be fairly effective, but they are not:

  1. Religious scholars as well as scholars, Pastor or Priest, who is said that religious scholars closer to God, so that in case of any given user.
  2. Experts in science and technology BMG case of any officer or to-Volcano’s (BPPTK).
  3. A Professor or Doctor who holds a degree of formal education, or perhaps he three of them need to be given a title.



Tanda awal terjadinya angin puting beliung yang perlu anda ketahui

The initial sign of the onset of wind Stormwind you need to know at the time of the rainy season is uncertain as it is today, the required precautionary us. Starting from various diseases to unfriendly nature. Diseases of the rainy season as it is today, among others, dengue fever, colds, flu, fever, and a variety of disorders of the body. Keep for having to do with nature, among others, thunderstorms, landslides, storms and wind wind Stormwind.

Facts of what causes earthquakes – The wind of Stormwind is very of the human race, since it comes unexpectedly arrived and very toned. Therefore, as a human vigilance need to be improved so that we can be spared from the effects of wind Stormwind. Well actually what the heck is up with the wind Pickaxe tu? Then what are the natural sign of impending ya wind it was, following Pickaxe.

1. The whirlwind

Twister is wind that spins at speeds in excess of 63 km / h which is engaged in a long straight line with a maximum incidence of 5 minutes. Laymen call a tornado is wind Leysus, in an area called the Wind Bohorok Sumatra and there are still other designations.

Another kind of wind with a larger size in America that Tornado has a speed up to 320 km / h and a diameter of 500 meters. The cyclones often occur during the day or evening in the transition season. These winds can destroy whatever it strikes, because the objects passed vortex lifted up and thrown.

2. Signs of impending tornado

If we are alert or if we pay attention to signs of impending tornado nature, we can prevent what we do not want. For last, strong winds is very dangerous to humans and buildings around us. Well for that, following an early sign of impending tornado:

A. It was hot and sultry or Javanese language sumuk
When these winds will occur, usually air atmosphere during the day was very hot and uncomfortable in the body. Well if this is the case, you should be a little wary. Remember our vigilance as the first step of prevention
B. Occurrence of cumulus clouds collection 

Look at this picture, this is a natural sign of the latter if there would be a tornado. White clouds layered layers clot is maybe one of them will be early or signs of impending tornado. Among the clouds there is one type of cloud has a very clear boundary edges gray colored towering visually like cauliflower.

Cloud suddenly changed color from white into black-colored (Cumulonimbus clouds). After that there will be a branch of a tree swaying as the wind is likely to occur. The duration of the phase formation of clouds, cloud extinct until phase should last about 1 hour. Therefore, the public to remain vigilant during this period.
C. Stages of impending tornado
There are several steps that should we know when to expect this tornado. Stages of this stage should we understand very well that we know whether there will be a tornado or not. The following phase of the occurrence of a tornado:
Growing phase
  • Growing phase, in the case of cloud rising air currents strong upward. Rain has not gone down, water droplets and ice crystals are still held back by rising air currents to the top of the cloud tops.
  • Adult phase, water droplets no longer restrained by the air rises to the top of the cloud. The rain fell causing the friction force between the air flow up and down. The temperature of air masses this fall is cooler than the air around it. Between the air flow up and down the twisting shear flow can arise, form a vortex. This air current spinning faster and faster, like a cyclone Yag “lick” the earth as a tornado. Sometimes accompanied by heavy rain that formed the jets of water (water spout).
  • Extinct phase, no air masses rise. Air mass extends down across the cloud. Condensation stop. The air drops down to an end cloud growth Columnibus
Well now terjadiangin tornado will occur the 3 phases. Phase-by-phase siawn passed until there was a tornado. If we have understood, and what steps should we take note. We must know the characteristics of a tornado.
D. Characteristics of tornado
Putting berliung is spillovers cloud Cumulonimbus (Cb) is used to grow during the period of the rainy season, but not all CB cloud growth will cause a tornado. The whirlwind has the following characteristics:
  • Its presence can not be predicted.
  • Occur suddenly (5-10 minutes) on a very local scale area.
  • Tornado-like vortex elephant trunk / vacuum cleaner hose.
  • If it happened last long, the tracks form a path of destruction.
  • More often occur during the day and more in low-lying areas.
Well buddy, we certainly do not want exposed to the impact of the wind ya. The impact of this wind is very severe. Create a buddy, I will share a little trick to face if there is a tornado, the following tricks:
  • Look for a safe place or away from tall buildings, such as towers, tall trees utility pole
  • Take refuge in the house
  • Do not leave the house first
  • Prayed with prayer we survived this wind.
A few tricks of the team, may be useful. Spread the word this so that we avoid or at least you can know the early symptoms of impending tornado’s. Salam Indonesia.

Soil Pollution Definition, Causes, Effects, and How to Overcome It

What causes earthquakes facts  – Land is the beginning of life. So our elders when describing how important the role of soil in our lives. In accordance with the food chain, everything we eat is derived from the soil, so plants can live and produce fruit, leaves, seeds, and stems as he was standing upright on the ground. Land preservation should we keep our soil can remain a place to live for the plants we eat. Soil contamination should be avoided by first we identify what are the causes, effects, and how to cope with and overcome land contamination.

Understanding Soil Pollution
Pollution of soil is a condition of entry of one or many objects the chemical, physical, or biological into the soil in which such objects could damage the soil structure and make the plants become difficult to adapt. Soil pollution is damage (destruction) of the land surface of the earth, often directly or indirectly as a result of human activity in the misuse of land resources. Soil contamination occurs when waste is not disposed of properly or can occur when people dispose of chemicals to the soil in the form of pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers in farming practice activities. Mineral exploitation (mining) have also contributed to the deterioration of land.

Soil Pollution Causes
Some of the things that cause soil contamination including the following.

1.Pembuangan objects that are difficult to decompose such as plastic waste, broken glass, metal, and rubber to the ground.
2.Penggunaan pesticides in agricultural activities that leave a residue through infiltration into the soil.
3.Sisa soaps and detergents that drain into the ground.
4.Pengikisan humus by water.
5.Penimbunan acidic compounds result of events that acid rain will contaminate freshwater ecosystems.

Soil Pollution Impact
From some cause soil contamination above, no negative impacts were then obtained for all components of the ecosystem. Impacts of soil contamination include:
1.Menurunnya soil fertility as a result of plastic garbage, broken glass, metal and hard rubber described by decomposers in the soil organisms.
2.Matinya decomposing soil organisms due to sewage detergents and pesticide residues in the soil.
3.Menurunnya soil productivity due to erosion of the humus layer of the soil surface
4.Perubahan soil pH due to the deposit of acid compounds derived from acid rain. As for changes in the acidity of this soil would adversely affect the absorption of nutrients from the soil by plants.

How to Tackle Pollution of Soil
How To Cope soil contamination can be pursued through the handling of waste recycling plastic, glass, rubber and metal into new products that can be re-utilized. In addition, the waste containment detergent to occur precipitation, filtration, and purification before discharge is also important. Efforts to use insecticide or pesticide plant replaces an environmentally friendly inorganic pesticides could also be an alternative in the prevention and control of soil contamination.